Yogyakarta, often also called Yogya, Jogja, Jogjakarta, is known as Never-ending Asia for its endless attractions and appeal. As one of Indonesia’s 34 provinces, this city is one of the foremost cultural centers of Indonesia. Many say that a single visit to Jogja is never enough. The list of things you can experience in Jogja may seem overwhelming, ranging from natural splendors, art and tradition and heritages to culinary adventure. This is why Jogja is the second most visited destination in Indonesia, next to Bali.
Welcome to Yogyakarta!
A thousand years ago, Yogyakarta was the center of ancient Mataram Kingdom which was prosperous and high civilized. This kingdom built Borobudur Temple which was the biggest Buddhist temple in the world, 300 years before Angkor Wat in Cambodia. The ancient city of Yogyakarta has emerged as the most important city in the field of culture, education, and tourism in the country. Various art events such as exhibitions and performances as well as cultural dialogue and exchange have been taken place in the city in high frequency. Conducive social and cultural atmosphere is the reason for many to study and grow in the city and to communicate their works to public in Yogyakarta. The city is the home for the arts and artists, students, and intellectuals.
However, by some mysterious reason, ancient Mataram Kingdom moved its central government to East Java in the 10th century. The magnificent temples were abandoned and partially buried by the eruption material of Merapi Volcano. Slowly, Yogyakarta region went back into the dense forest.
Six hundred years later, Panembahan Senopati established the Islamic Mataram Kingdom in the region. Once again, Yogyakarta became the witness of human history of a great Kingdom that ruled Java Island and its surrounding area. Islamic Mataram Kingdom was leaving a trail of ruins of fortress and royal tombs in Kota Gede which recently is known as silver handicraft center in Yogyakarta.
Giyanti agreement in 1755 divided the Islamic Mataram Kingdom into Kasunanan Surakarta be based in the city of Solo and Yogyakarta Sultanate which founded in Yogyakarta. Kraton (Sultan’s palace) still exists until today and is functioned as the residence of Sultan and his family as well as hundreds of abdi dalem (the servant of the palace) who faithfully serve the palace voluntarily and run the tradition in the midst of changing times. At the palace, there are many cultural performances such as wayang kulit (puppet shadow play), gamelan (Javanese orchestra), and Javanese dance etc.
After the independence of the Republic of Indonesia was proclaimed, Yogyakarta Special Region and was given provincial status in 1950 in recognition of its important role in the fight for Independence. The area is now a self-governing district answerable directly to Jakarta and not to the governor of Central Java.
Yogyakarta at present is a place where tradition and modern dynamics are going on together continuously. In this city, there is a palace which has hundreds of loyal servants to run the tradition, but there is also Universitas Gadjah Mada that is one of the leading universities in South East Asia. Almost a hundred universities and colleges are also built in Yogyakarta. Some of its residents live in a strong agrarian culture and a very Javanese way. On the other side, there are also students who live with pop life-style. At the same time, it is the melting pot of different Indonesian cultures.
Tugu Monument: The Landmark of Yogyakarta
Tugu monument, the landmark of Yogyakarta, is located right in the center of the crossroad between Jl. Mangkubumi, Jl. Soedirman, Jl. A.M. Sangaji, and Jl. Diponegeoro. The monument has been there for almost 3 centuries old and has a very deep meaning for Yogyakarta.
The monument was built around a year after the construction of Yogyakarta Kingdom. In the beginning of its construction, it described the philosophy of the unity of God’s creatures, meaning the spirit of togetherness of lay people and authorities to fight colonials. In Javanese term, the spirit of togetherness is called golonggilig that is depicted from the construction of the monument: the pole was of cylindrical (gilig) form and the top part was rounded (golong). The preliminary height of the monument was 25 meters. Everything changed when on June 10th, 1867, a big earthquake in Yogyakarta ruined the monument. The collapse of the monument was the transition time when the unity was not really reflected on the monument. The situation changed totally when in 1889, the Dutch government renovated the monument. It was actually the tactic used by the Dutch to erase the philosophy of togetherness between lay people and the king. However, the effort did not seem to be successful. The monument was constructed as a square with each side being decorated with a kind of inscription containing the names of people who were involved in the renovation. The top portion is no longer rounded but a pointed cone. The height of the monument is also lower, namely 15 meters. Since then, this monument was also called as De Witt Paal or Tugu Pal Putih (white pole monument).
Yogya is warm and humid. Its annual average temperature is 27° Celsius (65° Fahrenheit); the warmest is 35° Celsius (95° Fahrenheit) while the coolest is 18° Celsius (65° Fahrenheit). Humidity is in the range of 75%, so it is a humid place.June, July and August are when it is coolest to visit, while April and December are the warmest.
Yogyakarta features a tropical monsoon climate. The city features a lengthy wet season running from October until June and a short dry season that only covers the months of July, August and September. The city averages roughly 2200 mm of precipitation annually. Yogyakarta experiences particularly heavy rainfall from November through April. Temperatures remain relatively constant throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures at around 30 degrees Celsius and average lows at around 22 degrees Celsius.
There are clear rainy seasons in Yogya. September to April is when the monsoon brings more rain, with the heaviest rainfall in December, January and February. Despite this, rainfall is mostly intermittent and there’s still ample sunshine in these months. Best months to travel are from May to August during the dry summer season.
The rupiah (IDR) is the official currency of Indonesia. Banknotes are issued in denominations of 1,000 , 2,000 , 5,000 , 10,000 , 20,000 , 50,000 and 100,000 rupiah, while coins come in 1000, 500, 200 and 100 rupiah. Coins are not especially common in tourist areas as most prices are multiples of 1,000 rupiah.
ATMs are available in many parts of Yogyakarta – ensure you inform your bank before travelling abroad, and be aware you may be charged for cash withdrawals. It is advisable to exchange some cash before arriving in Yogyakarta.
ATMs are prevalent in Yogyakarta and accept most international cards. Credit cards such as Visa, AMEX or Diner’s Club are accepted at some establishments. Money changers are available at a number of locations including hotels, though hotels invariably offer the worst rates. Banks are the best places to exchange cash and traveller’s cheques as they offer the best rates without the hefty commission fees that other places may charge.
Yogyakarta and the rest of Indonesia uses 220V, 50Hz power and the standard electrical plug is a two-prong round type, either Type C or Type F. Although you might see lots of Type F outlet around, the power supply is usually not grounded.
Traditional markets and handicraft centers are numerous in the city where some of them located by the malls which are no less hectic.
Malioboro is located in the center of Yogyakarta and within walking distance from StasiunTugu (Tugu Railway Station). It is the most famous street in Yogyakarta. Located in the heart of Yogya, this is the city’s main street, and was once the ceremonial avenue for the Sultan to pass through on his way to and from the Keraton. Along this street, we can find many stores sell primarily batik, accessories, and traditional handicrafts.
During particular occasions, Malioboro would be festively decorated with flowers. Some say that the name Malioboro” derives from the name of the British governor Marlborough from the era when Britain ruled the archipelago, between 1811-1816. Carnival and the events taking place in the area of Malioboro are normally incidental to the performance time that is uncertain. But there are some activities that are regularly held every year such as Jogja Java Carnival that is always held every October, the Yogyakarta Arts Festival in June to July, and the Chinese Cultural Week held close to the celebration of Chinese New Year (Imlek).
Beringharjo market becomes part of Malioboro that is worth visiting. This market has been the center of economic transaction since the foundation of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Kingdom 1758. Its existence has philosophical meaning. The market that had been renovated several times symbolizes stages of human life that is busily engaged in its economy fulfillment. Furthermore, Beringharjo is also one of the “four in one” poles (consisting of South Square, the Palace, North Square, and Beringharjo market) symbolizing economy functions.
The area where current Beringharjo market lies used to be forest of banyan trees. In 1925, the transaction place had a permanent building. The name “Beringharjo” was given by Hamengku Buwono IX meaning that the place where banyan tree (bering) used to grow is expected to bring welfare (harjo). Now, tourists define this place as an enjoyable shopping place.
If you want to buy batik, Beringharjo is the best place because of its complete collections; ranging from batik cloth to batik clothes made of both cotton and silk materials, with the prices ranging from tens thousands to millions. It also offers merchandises, traditional snacks, Javanese herbs, to Buddha figures.
Mirota Batik is a local souvenir shop just across Beringharjo Market. It’s a 3-level building that is always crowded with shoppers. There are many stuff you can find here, such as art craft made from wood or silver, batik clothing, bags in batik motive, house decorations, shoes and sandals, unique hats, mats, ash tray, aromatic scent oil, incense, tea leaves, and snacks. You can find almost any souvenir you need from Yogyakarta to bring home. They are all in fixed reasonable price. So, when you are too lazy or not good in bargaining, it is a highly recommended place for shopping.
Yogyakarta Palace (Kraton)
Kraton or the Palace where the Sultan and his family live is located in the center of the axis stretching from the north to the south, and in the secondary axis from the east to the west. It is encircled by row of the mountains called the Horizon as the border of the universe.
Keraton Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat or now better known by the name of Yogyakarta Palace is the center of Javanese culture living museum that is in the Special Region Yogykarta (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta). Not just becomes the place to live for the king and his family, the palace is also a main direction of cultural development of Java, as well as the flame guard of the culture. At this place tourists can learn and see directly on how the Javanese culture continues to live and be preserved.
Yogyakarta Palace was built by Prince Mangkubumi (Sultan HamengkuBuwono I) in 1755, several months after the signing of the Giyanti agreement. Banyan forest (Hutan Beringin) was chosen as the place for building the palace because the land was between two rivers that were considered good and protected from possible flooding. Although already hundreds of years old and were damaged by the massive earthquake in 1867, Yogyakarta Palace buildings still stand firmly and well maintained.
The Water Castle
The water castle which is known as Taman sari is the center of imaginary line connecting Parangtritis Beach and Mount Merapi. To respect his wives because of their help in the war time, Prince Mangkubumi asked Demak Tegis, a Portuguese architect, and Madiun major, as the foreman, to build the castle. The sound of water splashing, the beauty of its ancient architecture, and its wonderful view, make Taman Sari becomes very enchanting. Its alleys and buildings have many secrets to be revealed.
About 60 minutes from Yogyakarta city, there’s the famous Borobudur Temple which is the biggest Buddhist temple in the ninth century measuring 123×123 meters. It was completed centuries before Angkor Wat temple in Cambodia.
The Borobudur Temple is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, and was built in the 8th and 9th centuries AD during the reign of the Syailendra Dynasty. The temple’s design in Gupta architecture reflects India’s influence on the region, yet there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Indonesian. The monument is located in the Kedu Valley, in the southern part of Central Java, at the centre of the island of Java, Indonesia. The main temple is a stupa built in three tiers around a hill which was a natural centre: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with fine low reliefs, covering a total surface area of 2,520 m2. Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha.
The vertical division of Borobudur Temple into base, body, and superstructure perfectly accords with the conception of the Universe in Buddhist cosmology. It is believed that the universe is divided into three superimposing spheres, kamadhatu, rupadhatu, and arupadhatu, representing respectively the sphere of desires where we are bound to our desires, the sphere of forms where we abandon our desires but are still bound to name and form, and the sphere of formlessness where there is no longer either name or form. At Borobudur Temple, the kamadhatu is represented by the base, the rupadhatu by the five square terraces, and the arupadhatu by the three circular platforms as well as the big stupa. The whole structure shows a unique blending of the very central ideas of ancestor worship, related to the idea of a terraced mountain, combined with the Buddhist concept of attaining Nirvana.
About 30 minutes from Yogyakarta, there’s an extraordinarily beautiful building constructed in the tenth century which is known as Prambanan temple. It was built during the reigns of two kings namely RakaiPikatan and RakaiBalitung. Soaring up to 47 meters (5 meters higher than Borobudur temple), the foundation of this temple has fulfilled the desire of the founder to show Hindu triumph in Java Island. This temple is located 17 kilometers from the city center, among an area that now functions as beautiful park.
Prambanan Temple Compounds consist of Prambanan Temple (also called LoroJonggrang), Sewu Temple, Bubrah Temple and Lumbung Temple. All the mentioned temples form the Prambanan Archaeological Park and were built during the heyday of Sailendra’s powerful dynasty in Java in the 8th century AD. These compounds are located on the border between the two provinces of Yogyakarta and Central Java on Java Island. Prambanan is known locally as Roro Jonggrang, coming from the legend of the ‘slender virgin’.
This temple compounds cover 39.8 hectares. Prambanan Temple itself is a complex consisting of 240 temples. In the main yard, there are the three main temples, as well as three Wahana temples, two Apit temples, and eight Patok temples surrounded by fences. In the second yard, there are another 224 Perwara temples. The biggest temple is dedicated to Shiva – the destroyer, and the two smaller ones which sit on its right and left are dedicated to Brahma – the creator and Wishnu – the sustainer. The tallest temple of Prambanan is a staggering 47 meters high.
On four nights during each full moon between May and October (dry season), an open-air theater inside the park performs the Javanese ballet dance of the great Hindu epic Ramayana. The performance involved 200 artisans; dancers and gamelan musicians, and only performed on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday nights. This performance, set against the starry sky and the lit back drop of Prambanan.
Mount Merapi, which is situated within a straight line connecting the Yogyakarta Palace and the Indian Ocean, holds an important role in Javanese society. The three places are believed to be a cosmologic trinity which are closely connected to each other. Merapi is believed to symbolize fire, Indian Ocean to symbolize water, while the Palace it the balance between the two.
Mount Merapi stands proudly almost as high as 10,000 feet. This mountain is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia. The trace of its malignant of the 2006 eruption can be witnessed in the Village of Kaliadem, 30 km from the city of Yogyakarta. Sceneries of green rice fields with Mount Merapi in the background can still be seen in the suburb area of Yogyakarta.
Vredeburg Fortress Museum is a museum that was established in a former Dutch fortress. It is located in front of GedungAgung, one of seven presidential palaces in Indonesia, and the Palace. In 1760, after the foundation of the new Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, the Dutch colonial regime had barracks erected on a plot close to the new palace. Between 1765 and 1788 they extended the buildings and converted it into a fort. The original name Rustenberg became Vredeburg. The building served the Dutch colonial administration for various purposes. In 142, during the Japanese colonialism, the fortress was took over by their army and made it into their new headquarters and war prison. Since Indonesian indepence in 1945, Fortress Vredeburg served the Indonesian army as a military command post, barracks, and prison for suspected members of the communist party.
In 1947, Ki Hajar Dewantara, the father of education, expressed the idea of converting the fortress into a cultural institution. Then in 1984, Nugroho Notosusanto, the former head of army’s historical service had an intention to create a Museum Perjuangan (literally “National Struggling Museum”) with dioramas. The museum was then opened on March 11th, 1987. It contains collection of photographs, historical objects and replicas. The dioramas cover events during the period of 1830 to 1949. All incidents depicted in the showcases took place either in Yogyakarta or in the surrounding region.
Parangtritis is located 27 km south of Yogyakarta and easily accessed by public transportation that operate up to 5 pm as well as private vehicles. It is the best tourist place for enjoying the sunset while having fun conquering sand dune with ATV or walking along the beach. The afternoon before sunset is the best time to visit this most popular beach in Yogyakarta. If we arrive sooner, we can go to Gembirawati cliffs to see the whole area of Parangtritis Beach. Indrayanti Beach Indrayanti beach is known as a clean beach with lots of cafés and restaurants. Located on the east coast of Sundak Beach, the beach that is lined by rocky cliff is one of the beaches that presents different views with other beaches in Gunung Kidul Regency. Not only decorated with white sand, rocky hill, and the clear blue water, Indrayanti beach is also equipped with a row of restaurants and cafes and inns that will spoil tourists. A variety of menu ranging from seafood to fried rice can be ordered in a restaurant facing the beach. At night, gazebos at the beach will look pretty as lit by flickering lights. Enjoying dinner at the café accompanied by the sound of the wind and the waves will be an unforgettable romantic experience.
For more detail information, please visit these pages:
HOUSING AND RESIDENCY
Student housing in UGM is managed by UGM Residence comprising four boarding houses which are Darma Putera, Bulaksumur Residence, Putra Cemara lima, dan Putri Ratnaningsih. UGM Residence is founded to facilitate UGM academicians including students, lecturers, university or faculty guests. Since the four of them only provide 369 rooms, most of students live in boarding house outside the campus, within 10 minutes (on bike or motorcycle) of the campus area. Further information about Universitas Gadjah Mada Residence can be found here:
Fauna 4, Kompleks Lembah UGM Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281Telp/Fax: 0274-583267, 583193,
Cemara lima Residence (Asrama Putra)
Jl. Welling, Karanggayam, Caturtunggal , Depok, Sleman, Yogyakarta
Ratnaningsih Residence (Asrama Putri)
Jl. Kartini, No. 2, Sagan, Yogyakarta
|Darmaputera Residence (Asrama Putra)
Jl. Andung No.1, Baciro, Yogyakarta
Telp.: 0274-549021, 549023
Suyatno: 0817 942 8101
Tunjung: 081 125 2706
|Wisma MM UGM is a housing for MM UGM students, UGM postgraduate students, UGM guests, UGM alumni, also public. The housing, located on Jalan Colombo Yogyakarta, is a seven-storied building occupies an area of 11.781m2. This strategic location in UGM campus area has been a benefit for its occupants for easy access to some strategic places in campus surrounding and center of Yogyakarta. For further information, please visit the website http://www.mmugmhotel.com/|
TUITION FEE AND LIVING COSTS
|Description||1st Semester||2nd Semester||3rd Semester||4th Semester||Total (USD)|
|Tuition Fee (Foreign)||2,750||2,750||2,750||2,750||11,000|
|Tuition Fee (Domestic)||1,350||1,350||1,350||1,350||5,400|
|Field Study (ASEAN Region)||1,700||1,700|
Other Estimated Costs for Students
|Description||Term I (USD)||Term II (USD)||Term III (USD)||Term IV (USD)||Total|
|2 years of Study Permit, Temporary Stay Visa (VITAS), 2 years of Staying Permit (KITAS), Police Report (STM & SKDL), Temporary Resident Permit (SKPPS), Health Insurance||1000||1,000|
|Book and Stationery||200||200||200||200||800|
|Seminar and Study Visit||200||200||200||200||800|
|Academic Writing Lesson||200||200||200||200||800|
|Other expenses for distance learning||200||200||200||200||800|